Makueni County number 017 is located in the South Eastern part of Kenya and borders four counties with Kitui County to the east, Taita Taveta County to the south, Kajiado County to the west and Machakos County to the north. The county has one major town, Wote which is its capital. Other major urban centres include; Mtito Andei, Sultan Hamud, Emali, Machinery and Kibwezi.
Makueni county lies in the arid and semi-arid zones of the eastern region of the country. The major physical features in Makueni County include the volcanic Chyulu hills which lie along the southwest border of the county in Kibwezi West Constituency, Mbooni Hills in Mbooni constituency and Kilungu Hills in Kaiti constituency which rises to 1,900m above sea level. The county terrain is generally low-lying from 600m above sea level in Tsavo at the southern end of the county.
Makueni County has three permanent rivers: Athi, Kambu and Kiboko. Major seasonal rivers include Thwake, Tawa, Kiboko, Makindu, Muooni, Kaiti, Usi Unene, Kasikeu, Kiangini, Kambu, Mtito Andei/Mangelete, Kibwezi and Thange. Most of these rivers and springs have been receding due to environmental degradation.
- The County shares a small part of Tsavo National park in the southern border with Taita Taveta, in Kibwezi West Constituency.
- Makueni County has one airstrip situated in Makindu and it is operational.
- Major towns in Makueni County include; Kibwezi, Emali, Mtito Andei.